If.e-qi can not be generated, then iCaccurate location of the acupoint, improper depth of needle insertion, inadequate manual manipulation, or a very weak constitution of the patient can be considered, all of which are thought to decrease the likelihood of successful treatment. It.restricts the use of words like “Acupuncture” and “Registered Acupuncturist”. citation needed At least 28 countries in Europe have professional associations for acupuncturists. 303 In France, the Académie rationale de Médecine National Academy of Medicine has regulated acupuncture since 1955. 304 ^ From Latin, aces needle and puncture to puncture 1 ^ a b c sigh & Ernst 2008 stated, “Scientists 1462-0324 . Moxibustion could be direct the cone was placed directly on the skin and allowed to burn the skin, producing a blister and eventually a scar, or indirect either a cone of moxa was placed on a slice of garlic, ginger or other vegetable, or a cylinder of moxa was held above the skin, close enough to either warm or burn it. 54 Cupping therapy is an ancient Chinese form of alternative medicine in which a local suction is created on the skin; practitioners believe this mobilizes blood flow in order to promote healing. 55 Ti na is a ACM method of attempting to stimulate the flow of qi by various barehanded techniques that do not involve needles. 56 Electroacupuncture is a form of acupuncture in which acupuncture needles are attached to a device that generates continuous electric pulses this has been described as “essentially Sun simian published acupuncture-related diagrams and charts that established standardized methods for finding acupuncture sites on people of different sizes and categorized acupuncture sites in a set of modules. 29 Acupuncture became more established in China as improvements in paper led to the publication of more acupuncture books.
Traditionally,.acupuncture.as used to treat acute conditions in China repeatedly, depending on the country's political leadership and the favour of rationalism or Western medicine. 27 Acupuncture spread first to Korea in the 6th century AD, then to Japan through medical missionaries, 29 and then to Europe, starting with France. 27 In the 20th century, as it spread to the United States and Western countries, the spiritual elements of acupuncture that conflict with Western beliefs were abandoned in favour of tapping needles into nerves. 27 30 31 One type of acupuncture needle Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine. 2 It is commonly used for pain relief, 10 11 though it is also used to treat a wide range of conditions. 4 The majority of people who seek out acupuncture do so for musculoskeletal problems, including low back pain, shoulder stiffness, and knee pain. 32 Acupuncture is generally only used in combination with other forms of treatment. 12 For example, American Society of anaesthesiologists states it may be considered in the treatment Acupuncture for non-specific, non-inflammatory low back pain only in conjunction with conventional therapy. 33 Acupuncture is the insertion in the skin of thin needles. 3 According to the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Mayo Clinic, a typical session entails lying still while approximately five to twenty needles are inserted; for the majority of cases, the needles will be left in place for ten to twenty minutes. 34 It can be associated with the application of heat, pressure, or laser light . 3 Classically, acupuncture is individualized and based on philosophy and intuition, and not on scientific research. 35 There is also a non-invasive therapy developed in early 20th century Japan using an elaborate set of “needles” for the treatment of children shōnishin or shōnihari. 36 37 Clinical practice varies depending on the country. 9 38 A comparison of the average number of patients treated per hour found significant differences between China 10 and the United States 1.2. 39 Chinese herbs are often used. 40 There is a diverse range of acupuncture approaches, involving different philosophies. 8 Although various different techniques of acupuncture practice have emerged, the method used in traditional Chinese medicine ACM seems to be the most widely adopted in the US. 2 Traditional acupuncture involves needle insertion, moxibustion, and cupping therapy, 16 and may be accompanied by other procedures such as feeling the pulse and other parts of the body and examining the tongue. 2 Traditional acupuncture involves the belief that a “life force” qi circulates within the body in lines called meridians. 41 The main methods practice in the UK are ACM and Western medical acupuncture. 42 The term Western medical acupuncture is used to indicate an adaptation of ACM-based acupuncture which focuses less on ACM. 41 43 The Western medical acupuncture approach involves using acupuncture after a medical diagnosis. 41 Limited research has compared the contrasting acupuncture systems used in various countries for determining different acupuncture points and thus there is no defined standard for acupuncture points. 44 In traditional acupuncture, the acupuncturist decides which points to treat by observing and questioning the patient to make a diagnosis according to the tradition used. The.Judy also includes warnings against practising acupuncture on infants, as well as on children who are over-fatigued, very weak, or have overeaten. 240 When used on children, acupuncture is considered safe when administered by well-trained, licensed practitioners using sterile needles; however, a 2011 review found there was limited research to draw definite conclusions about the overall safety of paediatric acupuncture. 3 The same review found 279 adverse events, 25 of them serious. 3 The adverse events were mostly mild in nature e.g. bruising or bleeding. 3 The prevalence of mild adverse events ranged from 10.1% to 13.5%, an estimated 168 incidences among 1,422 patients. 3 On rare occasions adverse events were serious e.g. cardiac rupture or hemoptysis ; much might have been a result of substandard practice. 3 The incidence of serious adverse events was 5 per one million, which included children and adults. 3 When used during pregnancy, the majority of adverse events caused by acupuncture were mild and transient, with few serious adverse events. 241 The most frequent mild adverse event was needling or unspecified pain, followed by bleeding. 241 Although two deaths one stillbirth and one neonatal death were reported, there was a lack of acupuncture-associated maternal mortality. 241 Limiting the evidence as certain, probable or possible in the causality evaluation, the estimated incidence of adverse events following acupuncture in pregnant women was 131 per 10,000. 241 Although acupuncture is not contraindicated in pregnant women, some specific acupuncture points are particularly sensitive to needle insertion; these spots, as well as the abdominal region, should be avoided during pregnancy. 2 Four adverse events associated with moxibustion were bruising, burns and cellulitis, spinal epidural abscess, and large superficial basal cell carcinoma. 16 Ten adverse events were associated with cupping. 16 The minor ones were keloid scarring, burns, and bullae ; 16 the serious ones were acquired haemophilia A, stroke following cupping on the back and neck, factitious panniculitis, reversible cardiac hypertrophy, and iron deficiency anaemia . 16 A 2013 meta-analysis found that acupuncture for chronic low back pain was cost-effective as a complement to standard care, but not as a substitute for standard care except in cases where co morbid depression presented. 19 The same meta-analysis found there was no difference between sham and non-sham acupuncture. 19 A 2011 systematic review found insufficient evidence for the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic low back pain. 20 A 2010 systematic review found that the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture could not be concluded. flicking, or moving up and down relative to the skin.
Other techniques aim at “tonifying” Chinese : 补; pin yin : b or “sedating” Chinese : 泄; pin yin : xii qi. 52 The former techniques are used in deficiency patterns, the latter in excess patterns. 52 De qi is more important in Chinese acupuncture, while Western and Japanese patients may not consider it a necessary part of the treatment. 38 as electrical pulses were found to make a frog's leg twitch after death. 269 The West eventually created a belief system based on travel trigger points that were believed to inhibit pain. Korea is believed to be the first country in Asia that acupuncture spread to outside of China. 29 Within Korea there is a legend that acupuncture was developed by emperor Dan gun, 2008.